A tyre consists of the tread, belts, sidewalls, casing, beads, apex and innerline. Different categories of tyres in India are passenger car tyres (6-10 kg), vans and light utility vehicles (8-15 kg) and trucks (40-75 kg). Tyres are made up of rubber, elastomers, carbon black, silica, metals, textiles, vulcanisation acids, additives and aromatic oils. Tyres are usually collected from garages, retail outlets, depots and vehicle dismantlers, long standing stockpiles or clean-up sites.
A used tyre can be disposed in ways like reuse, retreading, recycling or recovery.
Simple mechanical means which destroy one or more of the physical attributes like shape, weight bearing capacity, rigidity, etc are used. The most common methods are bead removal, compression, sidewall removal, tread removal and cutting.
Includes treatments which process the tyre to segregate the principal components like rubber, metals and textiles. Level 1 output used as feedstock. The most common are ambient and cyrogenic size reduction technologies at this level.
Rubber materials liberated at level 2 provide feedstock for treatments and technologies which modify one or more characteristics of the material. Rubber reclaim, Surface modification or activation, Devulcanisation, pyrolysis are the methods used.
Materials modified during level 3 provide feedstock for treatments that further refine and upgrade them. Technologies are used that enhance selected properties or characteristics. The preparation of thermoplastic elastomers, upgraded carbon products and improved reclaim are the most representative example.
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